Mastering Basic Chemistry with GenAIbots: Exploring Changes of State with Water and Water Vapor

1 May 2024


(1) Renato P. dos Santos, CIAGE – Centre for Generative Artificial Intelligence in Cognition and Education.

Abstract and Introduction

Materials And Methods

Results and Analyses

Prompts and generated texts

Conceptualizing chemical reactions

Deepening on understanding of chemical reactions

Question about combustion

Question about a graph of gases turning into water over time

Question about changing of state

Question about an animated representation of water molecules undergoing phase changes

Question about plasma, a state of matter

Question about chemical bondings

Question about illustration of chemical bonds

Question about the essence of the type of chemical bonding

Further analysis


Limitations of the study and possible future studies

Author Contributions, Conflicts of interest, Acknowledgements, and References

Question about changing of state

P1*: You mentioned water and water vapor. this is what my professor calls a change of state, right?*

ChatGPT*: Yes, exactly! A change of state, also known as a phase transition, refers to the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another. The most common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. The transitions between these states are typically due to changes in temperature and/or pressure.*

Let's go over the primary changes of state:

1. Melting: The transition from solid to liquid. For instance, when ice (solid water) warms up, it melts to form liquid water.

2. Freezing*: The transition from liquid to solid. It's the opposite of melting. When liquid water cools down, it freezes to form ice.*

3. Boiling (or Vaporization): The transition from liquid to gas. When water is heated to its boiling point, it turns into water vapor (steam).

4. Condensation: The transition from gas to liquid. It's the opposite of boiling. When steam cools down, it condenses to form liquid water.

5. Sublimation: The transition directly from solid to gas without passing through the liquid state. Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) does this—it turns directly into carbon dioxide gas when it warms up.

6. Deposition: The transition directly from gas to solid without passing through the liquid state. It's the opposite of sublimation.

Each substance has specific temperatures at which these changes of state occur, called its melting point, freezing point, boiling point, etc. These points can also vary based on external pressure.

Does this explanation help clarify the concept of changes of state for you? Would you like to dive deeper into any specific transition or related topic?

BingChat: Yes, you are right. Water and water vapour are examples of a change of state. A change of state is a physical change in which a substance changes from one state of matter to another. The three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. Water can exist in all three states, depending on the temperature and pressure. For example, water is a liquid at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure, but it can change to a solid (ice) when it is cooled below 0°C, or to a gas (water vapour) when it is heated above 100°C[123]


There are different names for the processes that cause a change of state. For example, when a liquid changes to a gas, it is called vaporization. Vaporization can happen in two ways:

evaporation or boiling. Evaporation is when a liquid changes to a gas at the surface, without reaching its boiling point. Boiling is when a liquid changes to a gas throughout the liquid, when it reaches its boiling point. When a gas changes to a liquid, it is called condensation. Condensation is when a gas loses heat and turns into a liquid droplet[123]

A change of state does not affect the chemical composition of a substance. That means the substance does not change into a new substance with different properties. For example, water and water vapour are both made of the same molecules (H2O), but they have different physical properties such as shape, volume, and density. A change of state can be reversed by changing the temperature or pressure again. For example, water vapour can change back to liquid water by cooling it down[123].

I hope this helps you understand what a change of state is and how it happens. If you want to learn more about the changes of state of water and other substances, you can watch this video or read this article.

Bard*: Yes, that is correct. Water and water vapor are two different states of water. Water is a liquid at room temperature, but it can be converted to a gas (water vapor) by heating it.*

Conversely, water vapor can be converted to a liquid (water) by cooling it.

This process of changing the state of a substance is called a change of state. There are three main states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Each state has different properties.

For example, solids have a definite shape and volume. Liquids have a definite volume, but they take the shape of their container. Gases have neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. When a substance changes state, it absorbs or releases energy. For example, when water vapor condenses to form liquid water, it releases energy. This energy is what causes the air around us to feel warm when it rains.

Changes of state are important in many different natural processes, such as the water cycle and weather formation. They are also used in many different industrial processes, such as food processing and medicine.

I hope this helps to explain what a change of state is. Please let me know if you have any other questions.

Claude*: Yes, that's correct! When water transitions between liquid water and water vapor, it is undergoing a change of state.*

The different states of matter are:

• Solid - Fixed shape and volume, tightly packed molecules

• Liquid - Fixed volume but variable shape, flowing molecules

• Gas - Variable volume and shape, molecules move freely

Water can exist in all three states:

• Ice (solid)

• Liquid water

• Water vapor (gas)

Some key changes of state for water:

• Melting - Solid to liquid, ice melts to water

• Freezing - Liquid to solid, water freezes to ice

• Evaporation - Liquid to gas, water evaporates to vapor

• Condensation - Gas to liquid, vapor condenses into water

The processes of evaporation and condensation describe water transitioning between the liquid and gas states. This is what produces water vapor.

Other examples of changes of state include:

• Boiling - Liquid to gas, water boils to steam

• Sublimation - Solid to gas, dry ice (solid CO2) sublimates to CO2 gas

Let me know if you need any clarification on changes of state or the different phases of matter!

Being comfortable with these concepts is important for understanding many chemical processes.

ChatGPT acknowledges the student’s understanding with an “Yes, exactly!,” offering Personalization & Personable Touch. It then directly tackles the student's question about water and water vapor, providing a thorough and structured breakdown of state changes, leaning to Instructional Strategies and saying, “Let's go over”. It finishes the explanation recurring to Metadiscussion & Perspective Framing referring that "Each substance has specific temperatures." It concludes with "Does this explanation help clarify" "for you?" offering Reinforcement & Feedback and Personalization & Personable Touch, respectively, and adeptly inviting further exploration with "Would you like to dive deeper", what points to Detail Depth & Content Recommendation. BingChat similarly recognizes the student's comprehension by stating "Yes, you are right," providing Personalization & Personable Touch. It not only offers a clear and presentation including examples, what hit the Detail Depth & Content Recommendation and Use of Analogy & Comparative Illustrations categories, but also integrates external content recommendations, pointing to Depth & Content Recommendation. It also adds that "A change of state can be reversed," offering Meta-discussion & Perspective Framing. It finalizes with “I hope this helps”, and a smiley, signs of Engagement & Interactivity and Personalization & Personable Touch respectively and “If you want to learn more” “you can watch this video or read this article” pointing to Detail Depth & Content Recommendation. Bard likewise recognizes the student's grasp by stating, "Yes, that is correct," exhibiting a Personalization & Personable Touch. It then provides a concise yet illuminating Meta-discussion & Perspective Framing on the implications of state changes being "important in many different natural processes," "water cycle," and "weather formation" and "in many different industrial processes," "food processing" and "medicine", connecting the topic to broader contexts. The explanation concludes with "I hope this helps to explain," showcasing Engagement & Interactivity, followed by "Please let me know if you have any other questions," which emphasizes Personalization & Personable Touch. Like the earlier GenAIbots, Claude begins by recognizing the student's comprehension with “Yes, that's correct!,” adding Personalization & Personable Touch. It then presents the states of matter and their transitions with clear analogies, leaning to Instructional Strategies, and extending the explanation with "other examples of changes of state", such as "Boiling" and "Sublimation," what hit the Detail Depth & Content Recommendation, although its depth might be a tad more concise that the previous ones. It then concludes with “Let me know if you need any clarification,” which emphasizes Personalization & Personable Touch and includes the remark, “Being comfortable with these concepts is important for understanding many chemical processes,” aligning with the Meta-discussion & Perspective Framing category.

This paper is available on arxiv under CC BY-SA 4.0 DEED license.